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Archive for the ‘HISTORY’ Category

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July’s LAM looks at the long-needed rehabilitation of Babi Yar Park, a memorial ground in Denver dedicated to the lives lost in Kiev, Ukraine, during the Holocaust, by Tina Bishop of Mundus Bishop; a rethinking of Chavis Park in Raleigh, North Carolina, by Skeo Solutions, which embraces the park’s African American heritage through public engagement; and the ground-to-crown planting of the One Central Park high-rise in Sydney, designed by Ateliers Jean Nouvel, with Aspect | Oculus and Jeppe Aagaard Andersen, where sprawling green balconies make what is said to be the tallest vertical garden in the world.

In this month’s departments, the Milan Expo 2015 centered on food sustainability seems to draw controversy from every angle; Molly Meyer is leading the charge for affordable, simpler, and greater biodiversity in green roofs; and nature reclaims lands once lost from the demolition of two dams on the Elwha River in Washington State. In The Back, an exhibit at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History immerses visitors in the beauty of Iceland through sight and sound. All this plus our regular Now, Species, Goods, and Books columns.

You can read the full table of contents for July 2015 or pick up a free digital issue of the July LAM here and share it with your clients, colleagues, and friends. As always, you can buy this issue of Landscape Architecture Magazine at more than 200 bookstores, including many university stores and independents, as well as at Barnes & Noble. You can also buy single digital issues for only $5.25 at Zinio or order single copies of the print issue from ASLA. Annual subscriptions for LAM are a thrifty $59 for print and $44.25 for digital. Our subscription page has more information on subscription options.

Keep an eye out here on the blog, on the LAM Facebook page, and on our Twitter feed (@landarchmag), as we’ll be ungating July articles as the month rolls out.

Credits: “The Global Cucumber,” Tim Waterman; “Green Roof Gold,” Michael Skiba; “A River Returns,” National Park Service; “Star Witness,” © Scott Dressel-Martin; “The Chavis Conversion,” Skeo Solutions; “Live It Up,” Simon Wood Photography; “Songs of Ice and Fire,” Feo Pitcairn Fine Art.

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BY MIMI ZEIGER

BEDIT_LAMdec14_Eckbospread

To revive downtown, the city appears poised to drive right through a masterpiece.

From the December 2014 issue of Landscape Architecture Magazine.

The city of Fresno sits in the middle of California’s San Joaquin Valley. When you drive into town from Los Angeles, the landscape is agricultural and framed by roadside eucalyptus trees. It gives way to off-ramp clusters of gas stations, fast-food chains, and light industrial warehouses. Most of Fresno’s neighborhoods, after nearly 50 years of decentralization and flight from the urban core, sprawl north, tracking the edge of the San Joaquin River. The city’s historic downtown and civic center are a near ghost town.

At the heart of downtown is the Fulton Mall. In the early part of the 20th century, it was Fresno’s main drag, Fulton Street, six blocks lined with banks and department stores. In 1964, the landscape architect Garrett Eckbo turned the street into a modernist pedestrian mall as part of a master plan for downtown Fresno by Victor Gruen Associates. Photographs of the period show a wide promenade full of people flanked by the awnings of existing buildings. Daffodils peek out of Eckbo’s sculptural planting beds, fountains gurgle, and a clock tower by Jan de Swart, an expressive interpretation of a historic form, unambiguously marks the mall as the new town square.

Today, the mall is the center of a fight over downtown Fresno’s redevelopment. The city government, with a $14 million federal transportation grant, supports plans to put a new complete street down the center of the mall. Preservationists plan to file a lawsuit to block the scheme. The rhetorical standoff between sides comes down to revive versus destroy, but the conditions on the ground tell a more complicated story about the role of design as a catalyst and a scapegoat in a changing urban landscape.

(more…)

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Remnants of Spain’s early 21st century speculative urbanization pursuits. Christopher Marcinkoski, The City that Never Was.

Remnants of Spain’s early 21st century speculative urbanization pursuits. From Christopher Marcinkoski, The City That Never Was.

A few months back, we published a short appeal for more landscape architects to apply for the storied Rome Prize with the hope that the breadth of the field could be better represented. On April 23, the American Academy in Rome announced the 2015–2016 fellows, which included three new fellows in landscape architecture: Christopher Marcinkoski, Alexander Robinson, ASLA, and Thaïsa Way, ASLA.

The Rome Prize, which provides significant time, research materials, and studio space at the academy’s recently restored Villa Aurelia in Rome, has long been a coveted honor. Described as “life changing” and “transformative” by the 1997–1998 fellow Mary Margaret Jones, FASLA, it is also a way of benchmarking where and how the concerns of landscape architecture converge with currents in the arts and humanities. Along with a cohort of musicians, writers, artists, scholars, and architects, the new landscape fellows will live and work in Rome for six months to a year.

Christopher Marcinkoski is an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a former senior associate at James Corner Field Operations. His project, “Rome, Empire Building, and the City That Never Was,” expands from the research in his forthcoming book, The City That Never Was, by looking at the emergence of speculative settlement and infrastructure projects. “My project in Rome intends to use the historical lens of Roman urbanization to think about ongoing projects that are being pursued in Africa,” Marcinkoski says. Using the example of megaprojects in Spain and Ireland that were begun but then abandoned during the recession, Marcinkoski says that these kinds of projects are now appearing in places such as Angola and Morocco, built by outside entities and sometimes in exchange for access to material resources. Coming off a long book project, Marcinkoski plans to use his time for more design experimentation, rather than written critique, though he notes that these speculative projects on the African continent deserve close attention. “There’s an incongruity between what is being proposed and what is needed.”

An interactive interface for the Owens Lake Dust Control Project explores the nexus of infrastructure performance and experience. Credit: Alexander Robinson

An interface for the Owens Lake Dust Control Project explores the nexus of infrastructure performance and experience. Credit: Alexander Robinson.

Alexander Robinson’s research deals with some of the major water infrastructure projects in the western United States; his work was recently featured in After the Aqueduct. He says that working on that exhibition helped him understand what he wanted to do with the Rome prize, and his project, “A Projective Picturesque: Reconciling Pictorial with Performance in Landscape Architecture,” will bring his research in infrastructure into a conversation with often-maligned picturesque aesthetics. Robinson is interested in “recognizing that there is a rift between performance and pictorial—there’s a lot more embedded in what we see than the scenic.” The project at the American Academy in Rome will take him back to his roots as a landscape painter to reconcile those aesthetics with the use of the planimetric design tools that are the mainstay of his current position as the director of the Landscape Morphologies Lab at the University of Southern California. “How do we think about the pictorial and the visual syntax of landscape architecture in the context of landscape infrastructure and performance?” he asks.

Thaïsa Way’s project, “Drawing a History of Landscape Architecture,” sounds perfectly scholarly, but it has an unexpected twist. The project will allow Way, a landscape historian, to study the relationship between drawing and landscape from its architectural origins to its current idiom as a form of professional communication. “I’m really interested in the history of drawing. It’s what makes us as a profession, makes us different. We use drawings to think, create, and communicate in a huge range of ways. How did those ways of thinking come to be?” But there’s more: “I am going to also draw—as a historian, to really understand what it is to draw, I need to draw!” she says. To do this, Way will look at the drawings of former landscape architecture fellows—the Rome Prize for landscape architecture was established in 1915, so she’ll have a deep archive to draw from—and then bring them to the sites where they were made, immersing herself in the relationships between the subject, the site, and the hand.  Way says experiencing the act of drawing will inform the way she writes about drawing. “As a historian and a critic, I read differently because I also write, and I wanted to have that same experience,” she says.

Part of why Way is excited about starting the fellowship in Rome is because of the way her work fits together with that of Marcinkoski and Alexander. All of the Rome Prize landscape projects in some way deal with issues that are in the forefront of contemporary practice, and each new fellow has pulled back and asked how history might inform these questions more fully. But they also speak to the field in other ways, tying individual research to the concerns of the field at large. Way says: “They’re all really about the profession, not just about ourselves.”

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Multihalle, Mannheim, Germany. Photo Copyright Frei Otto

Frei Otto, Mannheim Garden Festival Hall (1975), Mannheim, Germany. Photo Copyright Frei Otto.

In recent years, the announcement of the Pritzker Prize has fueled as much debate about the prize itself and about the state of the architecture profession as it has about the merits of the winners. This year was no exception. In giving the award to Frei Otto, the German architect and engineer known for his tensile and lightweight structures, the Pritzker prize organization unintentionally broke its rule of recognizing only living architects. Otto died at 89 only days after being notified of his selection, and the prize announcement was rushed two weeks ahead of its planned date. His unfortunate passing aside, Otto was an unusual and in many ways inspired choice by the jury. He was a gifted and generous collaborator, and most of his most prominent built works were coauthored by other architects and engineers, many of whom were still emerging at the time, including Gunter Behnisch and Ted Happold, and later, Shigeru Ban. “Otto was a spark, a trigger. His ideas created opportunities for others to thrive,” said the engineer Guy Nordenson. In his tentlike Mannheim Garden Festival Hall and the soaring Munich Stadium complex for the 1972 Olympics, he created breakthrough structural ideas, which often required new technologies and models to bring Otto’s ideas into built reality. Nordenson credited Happold and others with having created the first computer-based form-finding techniques in their modeling of the Mannheim project. (more…)

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While many people know the fine books published by the Library of American Landscape History (LALH), the library’s excellent series of short documentaries, North America by Design, deserves attention as well. The films, coproduced with Florentine Films/Hott Productions, Inc. and freely available for viewing, are based on the richly illustrated scholarly histories they publish. So far, the series contains four films, all of which can be seen in full on the LALH website:

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A monthly roundup of the news, dispatches, and marginalia that caught our eye.
data viz

California drought, visualized with open data. Courtesy USGS. http://cida.usgs.gov/ca_drought/

In the December Queue, the LAM staff spends way too much time playing with a drought data visualization, reads about rivers reappearing everywhere, and keeps tabs on Chicago’s bid to be an architectural capital.

CATCHING UP WITH…

  Though researchers continue to analyze the sustained ecological benefits of Minute 319, a pulse flow released in March on the Colorado River (“Fluid Boundaries,” LAM, November 2014), the social benefits to local communities were obvious.

 The river restoration and daylighting projects landscape architect Keith Underwood has worked on in the D.C. area have brought life back to what was once buried for fear of disease (“A Filmmaker Who Follows Buried Rivers,” July 22, 2014).

 Despite some criticism over the sustainability of the daylighted Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul (“A View From Below,” LAM, June 2010), the project remains an ecological and social success story.

FIELD STUDIES

 We are what we eat, but does the culture surrounding the food’s cultivation affect us as well? A recent study published by the journal Science says so.

Salon reports that a new study published by the Journal for Nature Conservation reveals a drastic decline in reindeer across the world due to tourism and inbreeding, among other factors.

•  Dalia Zein at Landscape Architects Network visits Parc André Citroën, considered by some as one of Paris’s worst parks.

The UN-Habitat website recently launched a new search platform to access the UN’s publications and reports on a variety of urban topics, from sanitation to gender to housing.

OUR WOBBLY WORLD

 New user-friendly interactive maps created with open data by the USGS visualizes the drought intensity over time in California and the Southwest.

 If you’re an American who doesn’t believe in climate change, you are now in the minority. A new survey conducted for Munich Re America finds that 83 percent of American respondents believe the earth’s climate is in fact changing, though only 14 percent identified it as a top concern.

 Tiny Bubbles department: According to scientists at Leeds University, if you can reduce the bubble size in the wake of oceangoing vessels, you can “counteract the impact of climate change.” 

A recent segment on 60 Minutes reports that the world population is tapping into groundwater at a quickening pace, and looks at ramifications for overdrawing from these vast, but finite, groundwater reserves.

OUT AND ABOUT

 In a bid to cement Chicago as an architectural mecca, the city recently announced calls for entry to the Chicago Architecture Biennial Lakefront Kiosk Competition as part of the premiere of the Chicago Architecture Biennial. Submissions run until March 23, 2015.

Rick Darke, whose firm is known for “landscape ethics, photography, and contextual design,” will be the keynote speaker for the 2015 Ecological Landscape Alliance Conference & Eco-Marketplace, which takes place February 25–26 in Springfield, Massachusetts.

DISTRACT ME FROM MY DEADLINE DEPT.

 If this doesn’t stop you from jaywalking, we don’t know what will.

 Why plant a real tree when you can get an urban wind turbine that looks like one instead?

Show that you’re landscape cognoscenti with these aerial photos for your phone’s wallpaper.

 Even oil barons can get into the spirit of the holidays.

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2x4_aar_rome_prize_emailIt’s always been a bit of a mystery why more landscape architects don’t apply for the Rome Prize. It isn’t because it’s obscure: The fellowship is one of the best-known and most prestigious awards for designers and humanities scholars, the kind of résumé bell ringer that’s recognized across the professions. At its center is an 11-month (on average) residency at the American Academy in Rome’s Villa Aurelia among a diverse group of scholars, musicians, and artists, and the rich community working in and around the academy. But while the architecture fellowship has always been highly enrolled, perhaps because of the academy’s early association with the architect Charles Follen McKim of McKim, Mead, and White, the two (on average) fellowships for landscape architecture do not receive nearly the same amount of applications. And that’s a shame: “This is an opportunity not to be passed up,” says Mary Margaret Jones, FASLA,  a principal at Hargreaves Associates.

Jones was a Rome Prize fellow in 1997–98, and she describes her fellowship year, when she made topographic models of Renaissance gardens, with unabashed enthusiasm as “life changing” and “transformative.” She now chairs the board of trustees, the first woman and the first landscape architect to do so, and she’d like to see more landscape architects throw their portfolios in the ring.

Despite its lofty origins and association with classical studies, the academy supports a wide range of new work from emerging artists and designers, and the city of Rome is so rich that there are many ways to develop project proposals that overlap with contemporary research and practice. Jones suggests those applying should  focus on the portfolio—the body of work is paramount—and that those at any point in their career should apply. “Juries are looking for people for whom it will be game changing,” says Jones. “It really is a time to take time to really look and see things.”

The current Rome Prize fellows in landscape architecture are Kim Karlsrud and Daniel Phillips of Commonstudio and Adam Kuby, an environmental designer from Portland, Oregon. Recent past landscape architecture fellows have included Bradley E. Cantrell and Elizabeth Fain LaBombard, and Walter Hood,  ASLA, Thomas Oslund, Peter Walker, FASLA, and Eric Reid Fulford have also been fellows. Applications for the next year’s Rome Prize are due November 1, 2014, and carry a small fee of $30 per application. Late applications will be accepted until November 15 with a fee of $60 per application. More info about the fellowship as well as eligibility and requirements can be found on the AAR’s website.

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